Basics of Networking – For Beginners

Basics of Networking - For Beginners

Since from the childhood we used to hear that with teamwork every hard thing is possible. When more no. of people becomes a team wand based on their independent capability can become a highly productive task.

The same way if we think of the computer field, then we can attain more profits from different computers based on their independent capability or we can reduce the cost spent on computer appliances.

In any way, if all the computers are connected so that based on their independent capability, can become a highly productive task. Hence a network is possible. We know the computer, but what is this network. In fact, what is there in the network that helps and works properly on this computer?

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The network is one of the channels through which we can send instructions and data. The network is used in different ways like the telephone network, mobile network, cable network, computer network, etc. Here, we learn about the computer network.

Now a day’s field of computer network has become very much popular that, it became the need of all the government and non-government organizations. For example, if the computer network of railway or share market is closed for some seconds, then it can become a big financial crisis for the country.

Development of computer network has become very easy and efficient. If you want to book a ticket for somebody; it can be done through any railway station in any of the city. But, did you think, how it is possible? It is possible only through computer networking. Throughout India, the computer network of railway network has become such a big network that you can book tickets from anywhere to anybody.

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Nowadays, government and non-government banks of different branches, through computer networking are connected with each other. As a result, you can do a money transaction anywhere throughout the country. Through the bank website, you can find the account status from anywhere.

It was proved that in the field of communication computer networking plays a vital role. Email, voice chat, and video chat, video conferencing has brought all together that nowadays it has become a necessity. Starting from small to the big organization’s computer networking has done office planning in a very easy, effective and efficient manner that office works are completed very accurately than before.

The field may be of education, business, transport, banking, sports, etc., everywhere networking has become a need and necessity.

What is networking?

From the name itself, we can understand that network means work through the net. In general, if we think, a network can be possible between 2 or more computers so that instruction and data can be attained or sent. If connect in the same way all the computers and through which data or resource is sent and obtained, then this relation is called networking.

We can see the use of network almost in every place where for doing one work two or more computers are used. Computer institutes, departmental store, super bazaar, railway reservation counter are the best examples, where you can see the connection between the computers.

Basics of Networking - For Beginners

Now the question arises, that what is the main thing in this network that it is this much helpful?

In fact, there are many advantages to a connecting network between computers. If you think wise you can find that networking in the computer is used where the data of more size or has to be transformed from one computer to the other. This is the main advantage of a computer network.

Floppy or CD-ROM is not needed to transform data into the network. With this money is saved and also data is secured. Because there may be a possibility of occurring risk while using floppy or CD-ROM. Data damage will not happen and the speed of data transformation will be more. Like data, through the network, we can transform files, music, images, movies and anything can be shared. The same way you can observe network at those places also where computer resources like printer, CD or floppy drive, etc. are shared.

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Usage of the network is developing day by day; because of this we are very much benefitted. We have to notice that using the network only, one resource in the network is available with all the computers in the network and these computers are used for multiplayer games.

The meaning of computer network is communication between two or more computers. It can be between two computers in our home and 100 computers in an organization. We have used the internet many times and the internet is also a network.

When we connect the computers in the network then the common data, common peripherals like printer, modem, scanner, common software programs, etc resources can be shared. In the networking data and different peripherals can be shared between 2 or more computers. It is a basic channel through which 2 or more computers are connected through a cable.

  1. Networking is the sharing of information and services.
  2. Networking is connecting or two or more computers internally.
  3. When a network user wishes to share data or resources of his computer with the whole computers, then only networking is possible.
  4. Networking is a medium or channel through which data is transferred from one computer to the other.
  5. Networking is a communication tool which is used to share computer resources like a floppy drive, hard disk, CD drive or printer, etc from one computer to the other.
  6. Networking is a result of two or more computers connectivity. And eligible to set up a network in its hardware architecture, operating system, and connectivity media.

One basic network

To install a good and qualified network, some features are necessary, and with all those, you can make a basic network. For this you need server or workstation network card, cables, network operating system like Windows NT, naval Netware Unix, Linux, etc. in the coming sections, we will study all the above features.

Network classification

As we know already about networking, some questions will arise that at a time how many computers can be connected. And how long the network follows etc. also, the cost for this network component and plan of a network, etc are raised. Come; let us know how many networks we can make and types of networks available.

A computer network is classified, according to size, covering distance or depending on the structure. A computer network is classified into two-three classes.

  1. Local area network (LAN)
  2. Metropolitan area network (MAN)
  3. Wide area network (WAN)

Local Area Network (LAN)

Basics of Networking - For Beginners

LAN is derived from ARKNET in 1977 which is used by the data point for sharing of disk storage. LAN, according to its name works at local and only at small places.

Mostly LAN can work within the building or for some group of buildings only. This or its small feature is known as CAN or also called as Campus Area Network where a network can be established with in the campus.

As we know in LAN workstation and computers are connected with each other. This work station is known as Node, which has its own processing unit and executable programming taken from outside. Also, it is best to access data and device on the LAN.

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Now, file and print service will come into the picture with which we can share data and also CD-ROM or printer. This shared data and devices are available at another node of the network. The network using user for communication can use email or for a quick message or instant message chat or IM services.

LAN is of many types. They are divided into three types- topology, protocol, and media.


It will exhibit the global state of devices available in the network. These devices in the form of an angle or a straight line connected with each other.


The rules of data transformation and the process of encoding in the network are called protocol. It is very essential to consider that protocol, is derived and related to network peer to peer or client-server.


The meaning of media in the network is the channel which connects the devices and not storage channel of the drive. The most popular means are twisted-pair wire, co-axial cable, and fiber optic cable.

In the past, two types of wiring techniques are used, which are known as Ethernet and token ring techniques. Whereas some networks transmit data with the radio waves only. This is useful for mobile computer users. This technique is known as wireless computer technique.

While using wiring technique, switch or HUB is necessary but whereas in the wireless network we use an access point, which is network devices.

Data transformation speed through LAN is very fast than the telephone lines. But the distance of data transformation is fixed to the maximum limit. Also; no of computers connected through LAN in this network is fixed. Two or more computers in a small organization, connected with files and printer facilities and share with all the computers come under LAN. This type of network is done for a single organization with different computers, to connect locally.

  • LAN is basically a combination of computer hardware and transmission media, which is considered and made for the installation of a small network.
  • Normally, the size of LAN can be of 0 to 10km that is why only normal and single type of transmission is used.
  • LAN is a complete network which is installed in a single building, in which all the features of networking are present. It is controlled only through a single organization.

Metropolitan area network (MAN)

  • MAN is basically a combination of computers hardware and transmission media, which is considered and made for the size of the network which is more than LAN.
  • Normally, the size of MAN can be of 1 to 100km. that is why, to cover the big size of the network, different types of transmission are used.
  • MAN is a complete network which is installed in a city with two locations of computer connected. It is controlled through a single or different organization.

Wide Area Network (WAN)

Basics of Networking - For Beginners

When compared with LAN, a wide area network can be spread all over the global world. WAN is almost like LAN which is done when two or more computers are connected in the network to connect the computers connects in one end LAN with each other, use telephone line which is a public network. For this work lease line or satellite, the facility is also available. Internet on its own is an example of WAN.

Come; let us know the working of WAN. A group of LAN is connected within the network and through an internet service provider; connection with internet will be granted. This way further, LAN become WAN and become a part of the internet. It is known in different names at different places.

We have read that to connect with WAN lease and telephone lines are used, the router will be present on the head of the lease line, which connects one side of LAN and one side of WAN. Communication speed provided by the internet will be very high. As a result, the cost will be less and resources are also developed. .hence, them of networking is work and profit.

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This way we have seen working of networks using which types, communication, and data transformation is possible, and the need for LAN in this process. Also, advantages and importance can be known.

Wide area network is totally different from LAN. In this networking, all those works can be done, which can be done by LAN or WAN. The computer connected in this network and the outer area is with no limits.

Normally, this network is used with different fields LAN with telephones lines and all intelligent devices i.e. to select with routers switch. The best example for this is the internet and can work in different countries, different fields and at different places with high security and consistency in work.

  • WAN is basically a combination of hardware and transmission media. This was done, considering the size of LAN and MAN installation.
  • Size of WAN can be from a few km to many thousands of km. That is why the transmission is totally different from MAN. WAN is a network designed with two different types of LAN connected, to work in a city, country, and throughout the world. It can be controlled through single or different organizations.
  • The WAN controlled by the single organization is called Enterprise WAN. WAN when controlled by different organizations, it is known as global WAN.
Basics of Networking - For Beginners

NOTE: Normally LAN and WAN are not different for each other, but they are not same also. Depending on our need group of LAN give birth to WAN.

Network elements

For all types of network (LAN, WAN, MAN), the following are the three types of network elements which are necessary.

  1. At least two computers are needed with resource and services etc to share.
  2. The particular computer to connect with each other, path-way is needed like transmission media.
  3. Communication is necessary to work with two or more computers. For communication, rules are needed, like protocols.

Network services

Network services are the combined capability of both computer hardware and software like sharing in network computers. Different network services will be discussed in the coming sections. Network services will do services and in turn attain also, like this they are classified into two:

  1. Service provider
  2. Service requester.

Service provider

Service provider computer hardware and software is the state which provides services to other computers in the network.

Service requester

Service requester computers hardware and software is the state which requests service to the other computers (service provider) in the network.

There are three types of service providers and requester in the computer industries.

  1. Server
  2. Client
  3. Peers


This network will fulfill the request given by the requester and provide its services.


It will send a request to the providers present in the network and take services for them.


According to requirements sometimes it will act as a server. So, it works both for client and server.

Networking is done in two types, according to the server, client and peer.

  1. Server-centric network
  2. Peer to peer network

Server-centric network

In the client-server network, we configure one system as a server, in which mostly instructions are available. Also, the information needed by the other computers also provided by the server of the network. In this network client user with the help of any interface, the application connects with applications server or database server. And if this type of request is placed, then the server understands the need and provides the required information.

If one common server is set with the entire computer in the network, then that data is centralized. According to configuration, one computer can act both as a client or server. But in an independent state, the files with data which were forwarded can be shared.

It acquires applications printer and data back-up storage space. The server is a very good configuration computer, on which very big hard disk is attained. It is specially made for files and to produce the application. Almost, this server works under 24 hours of service and works continuously. This way the entire client-server can be accessed, and like this to access a resource there is no need of another one.

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Using a client-server network we can be very much benefitted because this network can complete all the needs. They are mostly used in that field because of the style of the work based on messages. It is very easy to work with this network and possible with other applications too. When using database application or during programming, we need an application for the database server, which can be available from this network.

Both of these are used by the almost big organization, national security academy or in a related field, data protection, etc.

Basics of Networking - For Beginners

We can view the client-server architecture in another view, which is known as a thin client. Actually, it is a computer in which no hard disk and storage source is present. And they totally depend on the network server for the resource. While doing the work, the thin client-server will take all the booting information, file required for the application server. Because of this condition use of this type of limited, but the setup and uses will become very easy. Also, all the changes can be done in a single time. With this time, it is also shaved. It is used in a big organization where only simple works are to be done and a very least aspects to take care of computer especially.

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In this network one severs is present with the entire client. Through the system, server for its services, with the different client system, right and restriction will be set. In which network becomes more secure. In this network both for the data and different services location is the server itself means this model of network if highly centralized. For example, naval Network is Windows NT-2000 network. This type of network is also known as client-server networking.

Peer to peer to network

Generally, in a peer to peer computer network, the client or server will not be primarily decided. But on in special peer to peer the network itself works for client or server. This type of network is different from the client-server model network. In this on any node network, to start or end any task is very easy. Node location configuration, processing speed network bandwidth and storage capability of a peer can be different.

In this network, computers can be internally connected. But it is not available for many also; a maximum of ten computers can be connected. In this, there is no need to make a file or print server. In file-sharing, peer to peer is mainly used.

Basics of Networking - For Beginners

With the help of peer to peer network in our house or for any small organizations, to transfer the data in between the computers no floppy or CD is necessary. With this, our money is saved and data transformation is also done without any risk.

While using a floppy or CD chances or risk is high. Using this network, we can avail high speed of data transformation. To use this type of network more money is not needed and this way with a small time and money data transformation can be easily possible and also can avail on many computers.

A big advantage of this is in the form of data we can share files, images, music, movies, etc. in this for all the peers’ data is available and node acts as a data server in between them.

There will be no server or client in this network. In this network, all the computers can become a client or server according to the request. Security is very less in peer to peer network. For example, windows 9X Network.

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Generally, peer to peer network is used to connect with all the computers to avail file sharing and data transformation within the systems. Every computer is responsible for its own security user database is also of two types in this type of computers, it means they are decentralized.

This network cannot be managed with a single location. Hence, peer to peer network setup is useful for a small organization like cyber café, because their network security is not must and should.

Transmission media

In the network transmission media connects two computers internally through a physical medium. Transmission media can be wired (cable) and can be wireless (satellite) also.

basics of networking


The rule which is necessary to create communication between different network devices is called protocol. All the computers in a network must have the same protocol for communication between them. The protocol is a rule to set a connection between the computers of a network, because of which network computers communicate with each other.

Network services

Network services are used to share for different resources, like a hard disk drive, floppy disk drive, CD drive printer, etc, with the help of network applications. Mostly this network application is known as NOS. we will study different types of NOS in this article ahead. Different common network services used in the network are as follows.

  1. File services
  2. Print services
  3. Message services
  4. Application services
  5. Database services

File services

This service is used to store and retrieve the files or to move a file within the network.

  • Through network file services, files will move fast from one location to the other.
  • Network files services will effectively use the storage device.
  • Network file services provide back-up service within the network.

Print services

A print service is used to control and manage the printer access within the network.

  • Network print services will count the number of printers installed within the network.
  • The printer can be placed anywhere in the network with the help of network print services.
  • Through network print services print jobs are present in a queue, because of which time spent on printouts for any of the systems in the network is very less.

Message services

Services which are used to store access and deliver audio data, video data, graphic data, and text are known as massage services.

  • Message services are almost like files services, but in the file services interaction is absent in direct computers and works in between computer, user application and network application.
  • For example, e-mail and voice mail.
Basics of Networking - For Beginners

Application services

Services in this network, which will provide software for network clients, are known as application services.

  • They will share data like file services and also allows sharing the processing power of the computer.
  • The only application server can be powerful because processing can be shared.

Database services

The services which provide a server-based database facility, in the network are called database services.

  • The database of client’s request information is known through the database server in the network.
  • This service will provide data security.
  • Location of data is centralized because of this network.

Data sharing

Once when all computers are connected within the network, you can transfer data from one another without any floppy or CD. Even using floppy and CD also you must think of the size of the data. But whereas in-network computers, no need of considering the size of the data, change, delete or send the data to any other computer. Changes will be done only in the current sharing system.

The best advantage is that we can let different users avail data to the extent of any changes if necessary. If any user needs to access the data, but through that change in data must not happen. This facility is possible here. Like that we provide our data to others and at the same time it is also protected.

Resource sharing

In the same way, working with network computers can save money on computer resource. For example, think that five computers are in the network. And the resources needed for the computer are like cd-rom, printer, floppy drive, etc. cost of all the above resources can be saved through resource sharing. These devices can be accessed from any of the pc. Hence, the cost of resources can be saved.

For example, install a printer to one of the computers and share it with all the other systems. Also, install the printer to the computer from which you need the prints. This way you can send prints to the printer from any of the computers in the network. The same way we can share cd-rom and floppy drive throughout the network. It means we can save money on the four printers, floppy, and cd drives. Resource sharing is also known as peripheral device sharing.

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The same way, one pc with high capacity or more hard disks are applied and data is stored in this data can be back-up of the important files, music files, movies, or any picnic photos, etc of the data user. There are two benefits to it.  They are, to get the user data, no need to ask anybody. Because the user already knows where the data is available.

Application sharing

The best use of the network to know is still pending. Assume that you are having a multi-player game, which has to be played with different no. of users.

For example, think of vachak-3, if you haven’t played this multi player’s game, with application sharing this happiness with wonder and unbelievable. No play those types of games network is necessary. In which different users are present at different nodes (computer is known with this name in the network) and all are participating in only one game, with high interest.

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If our network is connected with internet, then sharing in another type can also be done. Here we can use 2 cameras and software’s both can be shared at a time through the internet. Voice-chatting is one of the examples of application sharing.

Network application sharing

There are many of the software’s which will work through the internet only. This type of network system is necessary because some software’s like SQL and ORACLE works through internet only. Here, one computer is kept constant as server and information needed for the client can be availed through server and rest of them is managed by the user. This is used mostly for programming purposes.


Messaging means to send your message to the desired person. In computer networking, the word messaging means; to send across ones message through the network to the desired computer or to a specific network or to another user who may also be connected to the same network at different location; in order to facilitate this purpose further, there are special customized software’s which have been prepared.

When a person logs on to one of these specific software’s through the internet, the software through the internet network may connect him/her to a friend/relative who also happens to be logged on to the same massager; then, he/she is able to send his message through the network to the friend, which pops up on the latter’s computer screen; thus, now both the users chat through the same messenger with the help of different network and often in different location reducing their cost burden and without hampering their work.

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This messenger is not only limited to a specific area or location; it’s basically limitless. Once this messenger gets connected to the network, it can send one’s message to any of his relative sittings at any place across the globe within seconds.

Basically, when this messenger gets connected to the internet, there are a huge savings of resource which is done. Whenever we talk to any of our relatives over the phone who is far off from us, it would cost us a lot even it be for a short duration, whereas communicating through chat would not even cost half the money plus would give us the liberty to continue chatting for limitless time without really hurting our pockets.

Remote Access

Remote access is special software which is used without having the internet and can be used within all local networks. With the help of this, we can access any pc and its files in the local area along with the print and other commands.

Like the pc, which we use, this necessity arises when the network is speed across a big area and we have to access any other remotely located pc from the one which we are using. Accessing one pc from another within the local area networking is remote access. This is also known to be the latest technology of data sharing.

With the help of remote access and internet, we can cross the boundaries of the local network and access our pc sitting in any corner of the world; for this, we need to be connected with the internet and the modem of the other pc, which may be connected when dialed. For this setup, the necessity of installing a remote access server is required so that whenever that modem is dialed the remote access facility is achieved.

Cisco Internetworking Operating System.

In this way, we can access any pc from anywhere. As an example, you can access any specific file in your pc while sitting at your office.

So we find the various benefits of the network. Through its applications, we can not only save our resource and money but also energy and time along with security and systematic process. Whether its data or resource sharing or network selection sharing or remote access network it gives us the easy implication along with an interesting work style.

According to necessities, networking provides us with various facilities such as file sharing, data store, gaming or any internet access facility, etc. in order to avail of these facilities; the user may choose any one of the following options.

Network router

Basics of Networking - For Beginners

Networks an arrangement where every router has its own vital role to play; let us see what are the routers through which a network is being set up and it’s made to be active and the network that runs between many computers also attests the basic definition of the computer system. This succeeds and achieves target only when different components work together.

When all these routers work together, it works successfully and achieves its target. Actually, a network is like a huge building in which lot many things are required in right and equal proportion. The only difference is here is instead of brick and cement there is the main ingredient of routers, Ethernet card, cable, elaborate devices connector, hub, router, etc. it has its own settings which depends on the attached last routers.

As because our main motive is to set up the network, therefore, all these routers are important for us and we need to have the required information about all these routers.

Navigating the Cisco Operating System

Let now see the various kinds of routers and their implications.


The server is a special kind of device which manages the resources of the network. The server basically is a computer of a high configuration with numerous hard disc spaces which is used to prepare the files and its implications.

Basics of Networking - For Beginners

On the basis of its implications, it may be of two types- file server and implications server. File server service user gives the user a facility of data saving and computer access. Implication server service runs any particular program for the user and completes it. Apart from this while using the internet, the user gets the facility of user webmail and database server.

The basic forms of the server are Disc server and file server. Through the file server and client can request to see the files located on the server. For this kind of data service a network of high bandwidth is required or else the speed gets affected.

The facilities of sharing the other resources with files are available to the user through usually LAN. In these facilities, devices like printer are connected in the network file server and access for all others.

Foundation Cisco IOS operations.

In modern technology, there are divisions consisting of database servers, transaction server, and application servers. The database server or better known as the structured query language (SQL) server actually sends client request whose reply is given back to the user via the client makes hi request reach at the SQL database engine in the server through the remote process in the transaction server.

In this arrangement, the server is a well systematic process which executes the SQL statements. The online transaction processing application server, the application based on this arrangement does not necessarily base on a database but they can be used in mail downloading, etc.

Because the server is based on the resource, users can share their data while the management and security system in the server ensures the data integrity and security.

IP Address Network Classes

We need some special and readymade components to change any computer into the server, like operating system, some services which perform our required tasks. Windows NT or 2000 operating system can be used to make a network server. After installing the service pack required in this, it works as a network server and required services are also available in its control panel.


Workstation station is a computer which is connected to the network server resources via a network; which applies the resources at the network server for the required results.

This could be our pc consisting of a hard disc, operating system, in which necessary software could be installed and then be used independently. There are no mandatory rules to be followed for a workstation, apart from a specified OS such as Windows 95, 98, Linux, which could be used.

Basics of Networking - For Beginners

The price of a workstation varies from very low to high, depending on the specifications. Manufacturers basically make it a point to keep a decent price along with a configuration which would enhance free data flow.

If a workstation is required to be a gaming console, then it is mandatory to have a high capacity processor, huge ROM, efficient motherboard and graphics card, etc. some companies have attempted to make low priced consoled, but with the various configurations, the prices have increased or the product is not up to the mark.

There is basically no relationship between the network speed and the configuration of a workstation apart from the ROM and processor; all the other allied factors completely depend on the necessity of the user.

Network interface card

A network interface card is also known as NIC or Network card. NIC is mainly a circuit board or chip which helps to set up the communication between two computers within the same network.

Once this board is installed, resource, information or computer hardware could be shared on the network. This is applied in the entire Network like Local area network (LAN) or a wide area network. Often it looks like a modem but is distinguished on the basis of connectors and its make.

Basics of Networking - For Beginners

In computers it is attached to the peripheral component interface (PCI), PCI expansion motherboard, whereas earlier it was attached to industry-standard architecture because ISA standard slot does not get into the motherboard.

With the help of a network interface card, one computer, communicate with each other computer called for one other thing, and it is a medium of communication. If we are not using wireless network then for taking the network in between one NIC to the second NIC they will be connected with each other. For this work, we will need a cable.

Network Branches

As we know a cable is a conglomeration of wires, like this there is also a computer cable and as you had known earlier that the data reached at the NIC of one computer to another computer through this, where these are accepted for next processing.

There have been several changes in the usage of NIC since its inception. With the gradual evolution and progress of computers, various kinds of cables have been invented. At the beginning of BNC cable was invented, later it was gradually upgraded up to UTP or CAT-5 and today the latest is the optical fiber cable.


It is also known as British Nowel connector which is co-axial cable RG-58A/U. within this co-axial cable, there is a copper cable surrounded by a 50AUM anti electric material. Thereafter it is also coated with conductor and finally, there is an insulator.

The bandwidth of 10B2 is 10MHTZ and is connected to a cable which can span up to 185 meters. In this cable, the wiring is very thin (50 AUM) and generally prepared with co-axial base-band wiring. 10B2 is also known as thin Ethernet, thinnet or chip net. In this way, 10B2 is also known as thick Ethernet and its maximum length is 500 meters.

Basics of Networking - For Beginners


Its full name is unshielded twisted pair cable. The name of the shielded pair cable is due to the twist the wires around each other used in it. Due to these twist, it does not crosstalk or noise. In the high quality twisted pair there is three twisted per inch. It is shown to look like the telephone wire. But, tin it the numbers of wires are eight, neither two nor three are also eight pins in the connector.

Basics of Networking - For Beginners

In this cable, there is a total of four pair, which is divided into four different colors. These four colors are brown, green, orange and blue and other four-wire colors are white-brown, white-green, white-orange and white-blue. When used in the correct manner it can give a speed of 10/100 megabyte/second.

Optical fiber

This cable will also be used as network media. Information is transferred as light through fiber or plastic wire or glass in the optical fiber technical. In this technique, many information can be sent in comparison with copper wire.

Now a day’s many telephone subscribers are using this technique. In our country, this technique is also using on a very large scale. As reliance company is using optical fiber in place of copper wire for their networking.

The main benefits of using this that in it we receive more bandwidth and network limits are also removed without losses in the data. Like that, using it the number of repeaters is less and the distance between these are increased in comparison to using the copper wire, by which, the total value is decreased. Repeaters are that device which is used to a refresh or boost the signal after some distance.

Basics of Networking - For Beginners

Generally, these are of two types- single-mode fiber and multimode fiber. Single-mode fiber is used for a very long distance while multimode fiber is used for a very small distance network.

In this way, we use cables as our network media. As we had known that these cables are also of many types and network speed receiving from that are different. But the network will not be made in it. If we want to make a general P2P connection, in which only two computers can be connected through method or any other method.

Generally, these are of two types- single-mode fiber and multimode fiber. Single-mode fiber is used for a very long distance while multimode fiber is used for a very small distance network.

In this way, we use cables as our network media. As we had known that these cables are also of many types and network speed receiving from that are different. But the network will not be made in it. If we want to make a general P2P connection, in which only two computers can be connected through method or any other method

Foundation Cisco Configuration

But if three or more computers are connected in our network then we need some other devices. For increasing our computers which and how many devices can be needed and what are these? Now we will read about this.

The devices which are used for increasing our network are called network expansion device. Really these are the needing parts of our network that our network will be how much longer and how much distance will be spread.

Once NIC can be connected in one computer and one connection can be made with one NIC. Such type of device which is used to increase or decrease our computer network, called network expansion device. As we spread our network we use many types of devices.

Domain Name Specific Commands

We are using the network cable according to the NIC connecting in the computer or selection of NIC is based on using cable according to the requirement. The cable cannot be connected in the NIC directly. Like that, as only the wire cannot be put in the electric socket.

As we use the connector in the shape of plug for connecting the wire in the socket, like that a special connector is needed to use for connecting the cable in the NIC. It can also be known as cable connector, like BNC connector, UTP (RJ-45) connector, etc.


Within a network when all the cable goes and connects to a device where the data is being stored and shared is known as a HUB. A common connection point for devices in a network. HUBs are commonly used to connect segments of a LAN.

A hub contains multiple ports. When a packet arrives at one port, it is copied to the other ports so that all segments of the LAN can see all packets. In this way, the resource is being shared by all the computers connected to the HUB.

A passive hub serves simply as a conduit for the data, enabling it to go from one device or segment to another. So-called intelligent hubs included an additional feature that enables an administrator to monitor the traffic passing through the hub and to configure each port in the hub. Intelligent hubs are also called manageable hubs.

Cisco Router Interface Configuration

The third type of hub called a switching hub actually reads the destination address of each packet and then forwards the packet to the correct port.


In the network when the load increases it is not possible for the hub to work along and therefore to ease the work of the hub switch is used. A network switch is a small hardware device that joins multiple computers together within one local area network (LAN).

Basics of Networking - For Beginners

There is some concentrative difference between hub and switch. First of all, if connection coming in the hub is 100mbps and if 8 ports are working in it then the connection will be 12.5 Mbps according to the 100/8 getting to each port.

While in the switch each port work as a hub. In it, a connection will be 100 Mbps getting to each port. In the switch, slow speed input is also be identified and work is done according to it. The switch can also be configuring through the software. This software comes with the switch. The whole work can be shown done through the software.

When we are connecting two or more network parts then we are using a bridge. This connectivity device is work as any type of repeater. In which address can also be read from the data packet of its proper going place.

Cisco Router and Switches

So, like the same, it stops the unauthorized data packets to going in the network by reading these data packets carefully. Because of it, the speed of network affected some because it takes some time to read all the packets. It is a good device for making data link but its price is some high.

Nowadays, as many networks are connecting in the LAN/WAN, in this ratio needs of using the routers, are increasing.


It is such type of device, which identifies that data coming from any network very clearly and give it permission to go to the users of different points or stop it. It is very essential to connect a minimum of two networks in it.

Router read the essential feedback in the packets and send it from one lane to another network, if there are critical structures in many networks then all the routers are communicating the information and search the better way for the route. Along with it, they send new feedback to each other.

For searching a right or speedway router are used routing table. In this table, all the route and feedback related with these like; total distance, total time, etc. are available, by which they realize the right and speedway for any packet their selves.

Show Command in Cisco Configuration

The use of routers is not only to send the data packet from one place to another place. It’s one more good used, it is used as a firewall. A firewall is used as a security purpose in any network and it can be used as hardware or software.

According to the router table and its maintenance, a router is divided into two types, static router, and dynamic router. The static router uses the table decided by the administrator while dynamic router makes the routing table itself.

For making this technique more useful, generate the browser. Browser is the hard bride names of router and bridge. According to its name, it can be used in place of both router and bridge. It is known that how do route any packet, which is the work or router.

An edge router is a router that interfaces with an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) network. A router is a network bridge combined with a router.

For home and business computers users who have high-speed internet connections such as cable, satellite, or DSL, a router can act as a hardware firewall. This is true even if the home or business has only one computer. Many engineers believe that the use of a router provides better protection against hacking than a software firewall because no computer internet protocol address is directly exposed to the internet.

This makes port scans (a technique for exploring weaknesses) essentially impossible. In addition, a router does not consume computer resources as a software firewall does. Commercially manufactured routers are easy to install, reasonably priced and available for hard-wired or wireless networks.

Transmission media

To share information and data processing in the network the most basic requirement for the computers is that they should be physically connected to one another via a path which is known as path-way.

Basics of Networking - For Beginners

This physical pathway is known as transmission media. It is basically a physical path via which a computer is connected to the other and works on the network.

Basics of Networking - For Beginners

Some information regarding transmission media

  • Transmission media has been classified as cable or wireless media.
  • Cable media provides a conductor to the electromagnetic signals whereas wireless provides no conductor.
  • In a smaller computer network often LAN cable media is applied.
  • In a larger computer network, cable and wireless media network are used.
  • The capacity of a transmission media is known as bandwidth.

Cable media

Different standard of network, types of network made in it and seed of a network, these all depend upon the cables used in the network or we can say that according to the use of a network the care should be taken to choose the cables used in the network at the time of making the structure of a network. Otherwise, there should not be totally benefits.

Communication of data, transferring, and their medium means there is directly related in between cables. If we use the ancient cables then if we want we use the protocol, then the speed of the network will also be ancient time and technique and data communication capacity using in it is changed with the standard.

Cable media is wire or fiber, which are travel the light or electricity. Cable media are three types-

  1. Twisted pair cable
  2. Co-axial cable
  3. Fiber optic cable

Twisted pair cable

In this wire, copper is used because it is the good conductor of electricity. Whenever there are two copper wire kept side by side there is an electromagnetic interference created which is known as crosstalk.

When these copper wires are twisted together this crosstalk and emission is reduced. When these twisted wires are put together then the emission is being concealed and it gets reduced. Twisted pair is a good of 22-16 gauge insulated copper wire combination. Twisted pair cables are of two types:

Basics of Networking - For Beginners
  1. Unshielded twisted pair cable (UTP)
  2. Shielded twisted pair cable (STP)

Unshielded twisted pair cable

A combination of 4 twisted cables which is fixed into a plastic case is known as UTP. UTP cable has been used since long for telephone connections and it is generally not used for computers.

Electrical and telecommunication industry association (EIA/TIA) has divided UTP into five categories:

  1. For voice (telephone wire)
  2. Data transfer rate(4 Mbps network speed)
  3. Data transfer rate(10 Mbps network speed)
  4. Data transfer rate(20 Mbps network speed)
  5. Data transfer rate(100 Mbps network speed)

NOTE: category 5 data pair is the fastest of them all because in this wire the per ft. twist are the most and higher grade insulator is being used. In UTP cable the connector used is RJ-45 and the telephone wire connector is RJ-11 which is bigger than the other as there is 4 twisted pair cable.

Common factors for selection of UTP cable

  • Cost: Compared to other cables available in the market the UTP cable is the most cost-effective wire and even the equipment used along with it are also very cheap. Therefore it is massively used in the telecom and IT industry.
  • Installation: UTP cable is very easy to install and it can also be easily configured.
  • Capacity: in UTP cable the rate of data transfer can vary from 1-100mbps.
  • Attenuation: any kind of copper wire which is used for communication can be used. Therefore the segment distance can be of 100mtrs.
  • Immunity from EMI: UTP cable is easily affected by exterior electromagnetic waves, therefore, the immunity of this cable from EMI is very low.

Shielded twisted pair cable

Now a day’s most twisted pair cable is unshielded. In the cable, the group of four twisted pair is covered with a foil shielding. The cable is heavy because of extra shielding.

The common factor for selection of STP cable

  • Cost: compared to UTP cable it is costly but is cheap if compared with coaxial cable.
  • Installation: its installation is more typical than UTP. Different companies like IBM, Apple, Talk are designed its connector according to their own. If you use the cable media already then its installation is very easy. In the following figure connector of Apple, IBM and Talk are shown.
  • Capacity: In STP cable the rate of data transfer can vary up to 500 Mbps.
  • Attenuation: any kind of copper wire which is used for communication can be used. Therefore the segment distance can be of 100 meters.
  • Immunity from EMI: Unlike UTP cable STP is not affected by exterior electromagnetic waves as it is shielded from outside.

Co-axial cable

Co-axial cable to view will be around the cable. According to the diagram its cross-section can be viewed. There is a thick string in between and is surrounded by an insulator to the four sides. Right on that dry electric insulating shield is present.

This dry electric shielded cable plays a vital role in inductance and capacitance properties. After this total insulator shielding is present. Data from this is transferred through the thick string and another string line grounded.

Co-axial means to access in one and only axis. If all the cables strings are in only one axis then it is known as coaxial cable. Application of this cable is mainly in cable TV and in data communication.

Basics of Networking - For Beginners

Co-axial cables can be of rugged and sensitive or thin also. In the thick cable, the thickest cover is used, but whereas insensitive or thin cable only think the cover is used. In the open-wire transmission of thick cable, wire loss is less but it exhibits some unwanted things also.

They cannot be controlled through mode or place presence. Some changes may occur on doing like that. So for the thick cable only thick string must be used otherwise problems may arise with unwanted radiation.

For this reason, co-axial cables are done. In this, the electromagnetic wave is controlled through the dry electric shield which is inside the cable. The co-axial waveguide is done on its own and the transmission is done through this line only.

This cable can be bent, without any problem; conductive support is also given for risk-free operation. The co-axial cable is very heavy and this is the main disadvantage of it. The main reason is that the string and the insulating material weight is more.

For computer communication, RJU-580/U co-axial cable is used. The dry electric shield is made of polyethylene. And the radius of the cable is 0.42 mm and 2.208 mm of polyethylene sheet.

Its total impedance or resistance is measured in ohms which are mostly out or range. Mostly; the resistance of co-axial cable can be 50 to 75 ohms. Cables losses are taken through a special meter.

The resistance of the cable highly depends on the thickness of the string inside it. For high frequencies, co-axial cables of twisted pair cables are used in which noise immunity is more and also supports for higher bandwidth.

Co-axial cables can be used based on the resistance of them. With this difference in resistance between bandwidths and broadband, cables are used. A 50-ohm resistance cable is used for baseband and 75-ohm cables for broadband are used. Co-axial cable can be used for data communication in both networks.

Baseband network is the network in which only one signal is sent one time. It is used mainly for Ethernet applications and mostly bus technology is used in this network.

The data communication is done both digital and bi-directional in it. In the baseband very easily transceiver is used in which three stages are present. Zero, one and full stops.

Length of the network also depends on it. Until and unless our signal becomes weaker, then only a repeater can be used. When the connectivity becomes low, because of the less thickness of cable and for the network, the presence of modem is not necessary.

Broadband network is the network in which a special string can allow in different channels. This transceiver sometimes becomes problematic. Here, signal works in multiplexing order. Because of this speed of the signal and network is increased accordingly.

In this data, the transmission is done through analog and uni-directional. It gives a good report on bus or tree topology. Signals can travel long distances and work also. To use this network is somewhat difficult and costly. The cable is of more cost and for connecting RF modem is needed.

When compared with baseband standard is also less. These way problems will become less.

Co-axial cable which is used in a broadband network is also known as baseband cable. The cable used in a broadband network is called as broadband cable.

Baseband cables resistance is 50 ohm. Shielding of this is very good that even for long-distance also the speed of the network is very high. To use a baseband cable bandwidth will be increasing and also noise immunity will also be high in which our essential network is good.

When compared broadband co-axial is of 75-ohm resistance cable. The network speed approaching from this is very high and its frequency is up to 500MHz. BNC connector or adaptor is mostly used with co-axial cables and also available, like T connector, bailer connector, and terminator. Almost problems will arise only because of connectors so; always select the cables which are crimped and set in but not of a screw type.

In this cable, two conductors will be present. The inner conductor is towards inside and outer conductor will be towards outside. The inner conductor is shielded with a plastic tube, on which one foil shield will be wrapped. The outer conductor will be present on this foil shield, on which a portly plastic tube will be present.

Types of coaxial cable

  1. 50 ohms RG-8, RG-11 (thick co-axial)
  2. 50 ohms RG-58 (thin co-axial)
  3. 75 ohms RG-59 (cable TV)

Factors to be considered for the best co-axial cable chain

  • Cost: cost of the co-axial cable depends on the diameter of the conductor present in it and the composition of it. Cost of the thin coaxial cable is less than STP and UTP. Cost of the thick coaxial cable is more than STP and UTP. Thick and thin, both of the cost if higher than category-3 UTP.
  • Installation: installation of coaxial cable is very easy but managing it might be difficult.
  • Capacity: with this cable data transfer rate of 10 Mbps can be acquired.
  • Attenuation: attenuation regarding this cable is less than the other twisted pair cable segment distance of the thin coaxial cable is 185mts and for thick coaxial cable it can be up to 500 meters.
  • Immunity from EMI: due to the thick plastic ripping or covering effect of EMI is very less.

Co-axial cable connector

For coaxial cables, BNC (Bayone Neill concelman) connector is used. BNC connectors are of many types such as T-connector, barrel connector, and terminator.

Fiber optic cable

Basics of Networking - For Beginners

The information in fiber optic cable can be sent very fast through the medium of light when compared with this UTP, STP or co-axial cables.

A hollow core or vacuum of glass material like layers covered all over it. Here the medium of transformation is through light but not the electrical signals. This way it works in the presence of high electrical interference also.

It is going to be used for communication between the buildings because of no risk against moisture and light. Co-axial or UTP, any of them have the efficiency to transmit data rapidly for long distances. Because of these assets, workings of these fields are increasing day by day.

Now a day these are used in video conferences also. Installation and maintain is somewhat difficult. These are of two types. One is single-mode fiber and other is multimode fiber.

When any ray approaches and makes a different angle in the fiber core, then it is known as a mode. For the long-distance network, single-mode fiber is used. And for short-distance network multi-mode fiber will be used. Another difference is, the device used in single-mode fiber is the laser beam and whereas in multimode fiber is LED.

In multimode fiber, for a beam of light in a proper way many modes are needed, because these light rays come from different angles, so the time taken to reach other end is also different. This theory or effect is called as maudel dispersion. This maudel dispersion remains bandwidth and distance within a limit.

This effect can be observed in multimode fiber. Only because of this, multi-mode fibers are used between buildings and is small fields of work, an only a single beam of light is sent through the single-mode fiber.

Hence maudel dispersion concept is not applicable for single-mode fiber, so single-mode fiber is for a best definite result. ST connector is used mostly with fiber optic cable. This will look like bairel, pipe or BNC connector.

It is light-conducting glass or channel of light or fiber core made of plastic fiber with a strong outer covering, which is known as cladding. In this cable, the signal travels in the form of light. According to the strength of the cable, these are divided into two.

  1. Loose configuration
  2. Tight configuration

In loose configuration plastic case of glass or fiber, filled with liquid gel is used. But whereas in tight configuration strength wire is used. Both of them are to protect the cable against change in temperature, bend, and stretch or from cable break.

According to the path of light, these cables are classified into two types

  1. Single mode
  2. Multi mode

Single-mode will allow a single light path whereas multi-mode allows many numbers of light paths.

According to mode composition and core-cladding, the following are available.

  1. 8.3-micron core/125 micron cladding single-mode
  2. 62.5-micron core/125 micron cladding multi-mode
  3. 50-micron core/125 micron cladding multi-mode

Factors to be considered for the best fiber optic cable chain

  • Cost: This cable is expensive when compared to the cables in transmission media.
  • Installation: Installation is very difficult when compared to other cables in transmission media.
  • Capacity: In this cable media data transfer rate is possible from 100mbps to 2gbps.
  • Attenuation: Attenuation is very less effective than cable media. Segment distance is possible from 2 to 25 km with this cable.
  • Immunity from EMI: Because of the light spectrum there will be no effect of outer EMI. This cable works in high voltage are also.

Wireless media

Scientists have found techniques in this development era that even without cable also network can be built. Data can be transferred and communication is also possible. Yes, we are talking about a wireless network or LAN.

In the wireless LAN, radio signal of high frequency, infrared light rays or with the help of laser rays, communication can be established between workstation and server or hub.

In this LAN a special work station with file server with the same type of transceiver or antenna is hanged to it. With which they will send and acquire data. In transceivers transmitting and receiving information is same in as in cables.

For long-distance, using not only cellular telephone technique microwave transmission or satellites can also be used.

In fact, the need for wireless LAN is important when the person went out and from outside he needs communication, or again to meet with a remote computer LAN.

Like old buildings where to set up a network cable is difficult, there using this technique LAN can be connected. Wireless LAN is classified into two types. Line of sight and scattered broadcast.

Line of light by the name itself we can say there must not be any problem with this service, between workstation and server or hub transceiver. If at all problem arises data transfer level will become slow or break or loss of data can be possible.

Network communication through laser beam is nothing but a line of sight communication. Scattered infrared is the clear picture of transmission. In this service problems occurring between transceivers, the workstation and hub or server cannot create problem in data transfer level. In this service data transfer to the receiver, chances are high.

But in wireless LAN many more disadvantages are also found. Where insecurity and misguide states will be occurring. Least protected plans and light and with electronic devices, related to interference up to the level of doubts and also the speed of this can become slow than the cable network.

Like this, we have seen cable network is very much better than the wireless network. But cable network is also problematic without care. In fact, while giving cable connection, be cautious, otherwise, loss of money occurs and even time is also wasted for troubleshooting.

Before connecting network cable first assumes the approximate length or even measure the required length. Do not become miser when purchasing cable. Because for small mistake both cable and hard work will be wasted.

While doing a network device has to be checked correctly and check for risk-free conditions. If at all any replacement is necessary, replace with a new one.

While using connector check whether properly inserted, and it is better to prefer screw-type connector rather than crimping connectors. When the cable is laid down to the ground set the cable with cable protector otherwise it can come in between legs and high loss of money occurs and time also wasted.

Before connecting cable, confirm yourself that the two ends are truly cabled, and which device to be connected to which device or computer.

It is very difficult to find out which of the cable is faulty. Beware of cables and take care that maintains a minimum of feet distance from the florescent network devices and electrical interference devices. Otherwise, it will not be good for your health.

Precautions may be many more but they are wasted when not in application. The need for precautions and use of the mind is necessary so that you can expertise in networking forever and enjoys it.

It is not like troubleshooting when a problem occurs, but taking care regularly for problem-free network even after connection also.

Network interface card

In any computer network, any computer connects only through a network cable or network card. This is known as a network interface card or NIC or a network adaptor.

NIC is fixed on the computer’s motherboard slot. Earlier 8-bit or 16-bit slots are present on 286386 etc. motherboards. So, network cards to be used in that are also 8-bit or 16-bit ISA only.

But these days Pentium computers have 32-bit (PCI) slot on which the 32-bit (PCI) network card is set. For a high-speed network, use 32-bit (PCI) network card. Likewise, ISA or PCI card PCMCIA card is also available. It is used in laptop computers.

These cards are of different architecture (16 bit/32 bit) with different speeds. ISA network card is available most of the 10mbps speed. The same way PCI network card is available at 10/100mbps means the capability of working at any of the two networks.

Basics of Networking - For Beginners

Based on hardware architecture or speed NIC is of three types.

Type Architecture speed
ISA 8, 16 bit 10 mbps
PCI 32 bit 10 mbps
PCI 32 bit 10/100 mbps

Many chip sets of NIC card (LAN card) are available in the market like Cnet, 3 Com, Intel, Realtek, etc. LAN card or Realtek chip set are very much popular. Based on hardware architecture or speed Realtek company’s chip sets are available in the market as follows:

Chipset Type Architecture socket type speed
RTL8019 ISA 16 bit 4 pin 10 mbps
RTL8029 PCI 32 bit 4 pin 10 mbps
RTL8139 PCI 32 bit 8 pin 10/1000 mbps


It is a device in the network which organizes tranmission media cables of network computers and transmits incoming signals to the other segments. Hub is also called as multi port repeater or concentrator.

When a network is connected with a hub, through that another 2 or more no. of computer can be connected. This is an advantage that we can use many of the computers at any time. To connect a new computer a new straight cable or network card is necessary.

This way you can connect many computers. Like network card, Hub is also available at 10/100 Mbps.

Your network speed i.e. Mbps depends only upon speed of Hub. If you are using 10 Mbps hub and 100 Mbps network card is connected in all the computers of the network then in this situation the speed of all the computers will be 10 Mbps.

Like this, if the hub is 100 Mbps in your network and 10 Mbps network cards are connected at all the computers then the speed of all the computers will also be the 10 Mbps.

It means if you want 100 Mbps network then for this, you will use 100 Mbps hub and 100 Mbps network card in the computers.

Types of HUB

HUB is of three types

  1. Passive HUB
  2. Active HUB
  3. Intelligent HUB

Passive HUB

Work of passive HUB is to connect only to the media segment in the network. This will not regenerate the signals, and power supply is assent in these Hubs.

Active HUB

The only difference between passive and active HUB is that Active HUB can regenerate and amplify the signals.

Intelligent HUB

This hub works to regenerate, network management and for path selection activities. It acts as a switching hub also. When switching is used, then the data packet for which it was sent will be stored into that computer only. Hence, intelligent HUB plays a vital role in managing network traffic.


The rule which is necessary to create communication between different network devices is called protocol. All the computers in a network must have the protocol for communication between them. The protocol is of many types such as NetBEUI, IPX, Apple Talk, and TCP/IP.

Basically, a protocol is a language for network computers which has to be same for all. So that communication can be done with all the computers. For example, A, B, C three computers with A of NetBEUI, B of TCP/IP and C of NetBEUI and TCP/IP installed with both the protocols.

In this condition, A and B computers can communicate with C, but both of them cannot communicate within them.

Types of Network Protocol

Protocol Full Name Application/Description
PPP Point to Point Protocol Access any network through MODEM
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol It is used for using the internet. Today it is very popular protocol using for network.
IPX/SPX Internetwork packet exchange. Sequenced packet exchange This protocol is used in Naval Netware.
NetBIOS NetBIOS extended user interface. This protocol is used in the Microsoft Network.
FTP File Transfer Protocol This protocol is used for import and exports the files at a remote host.

Difference between TCP/IP and NetBEUI

  1. NetBEUI is used mostly in small networks. Whereas TCP/IP is used in any type of Network.
  2. In NetBEUI network traffic is high. But whereas in TCP/IP traffic is very less and even manages.
  3. Troubleshooting is difficult in NetBEUI and very easy in TCP/IP.
  4. There will b no special node of address in TCP/IP whereas in TCP/IP it will have a special node for address and is known as IP address.
  5. The Internet cannot be accessed in NetBEUI but whereas in TCP/IP it can be accessed.

Network Topology

The network is done through different conditions like how is the cable with how much length, how would be the connection of these cables to the computers, which type of cable is used for which type of network card, etc. planning plays a vital role in network designing.

This way, the physical layout of network cabling is nothing but Topology. There are many types of topology. You can usage of respective topology is according to the need, budget and the task to complete.

The complete physical structure i.e. layout of transmission media, used in any computer network is called as Network Topology. According to the usage of transmission media, topology is of many types, which are the following:

  1. Linear Bus Topology
  2. Star Topology
  3. Tree Topology

Linear Bus Topology

In this topology, the cable used as a transmission media is connected serially through connectors to all nodes like server, client, printer, etc. This cable is called as Back-Bone.

Transmission Media involved in linear bus topology.

  • Co-axial cable
  • T-connector
  • Bailer connector
  • Terminator
  • BNC type LAN card
Basics of Networking - For Beginners

Advantages Of Linear Bus Topology

  • In this network computers or peripherals are easily connected with each other
  • In this topology, the small cable is used.

Disadvantages Of Linear Bus Topology

  • In this topology, the total network will be down when the mains cable is a break.
  • In this topology when the terminators of both the ends of back-bone get loose, the total network will be down.
  • Troubleshooting is very typical when network is down.

Star Topology

In this topology, the cable is connected to the central device through a special node i.e. Network computer, printer. This cable is known as Path cable or straight cable or devices HUB.

Basics of Networking - For Beginners

Transmission media involved in a star topology

  1. UTP cable
  2. RJ-45 connector
  3. HUB
  4. RJ-45 connector socket type LAN card

Advantages of star topology

  • Installation of this topology is very easy.
  • In this, troubleshooting is very easy. Now a day’s almost this topology is used everywhere.

Disadvantages of star topology

  • In this topology, more cable is needed than in linear topology.
  • In this topology, if HUB fails then the total network will be down.
  • When compared with linear bus topology, this topology is very much expensive.

Tree topology

Tree topology is a combination of linear bus and star topology. In this, a computer connected with star topology is connected with a linear bus backbone.

Basics of Networking - For Beginners

Transmission media involved in tree topology

  • UTP, co-axial or fiber optic cable
  • UTP cable for star topology
  • HUB
  • RJ-45 connector
  • RJ-45 connector socket type LAN card
  • Terminator

Advantages of a tree topology

  • The tree topology advantages are the same as linear topology and star topology.

Disadvantages of a tree topology

  • The tree disadvantages are the same as linear topology and star topology.
  • This topology is a combination of linear and star topology. Hence, its setup is very hard.

Factors to be considered while cable installation

  • Always use more length of cable than needed.
  • Check for the particular port of transmission media before cable installation.
  • Always install the cable, far from high voltage electric line and use casing-capi.
  • Use a cable protector to lay down the cable.
  • Do not let the cable to bend and joints in between.
  • Use always a high-quality cable and connectors.
  • In network cabling, the connection must be perfect.

Network cabling

As we know already that now a day’s star topology is mostly used because installation of it is very easy, assembly of cable is easy and cable is also readily available in the market, etc. in star topology two types of cables are used.

  1. Straight cable (Patch cable)
  2. Cross cable (up-link cable)

Straight cable (Patch cable)

Basics of Networking - For Beginners

This cable is used in a star topology to connect a particular computer with HUB. When two or more computers are used within the network then device HUB is needed. A network cable from a particular computer will connect to this HUB.

Hence, how much the number of computers may be; from there a network cable will come on to the HUB. This cable is known as straight cable or patch cable.

If you have two computers and RJ-45 socket type network card is connected in it and you want to do the networking in it without using the HUB then you will have to use the cross cable in between both the computers.

Cross cable (uplink cable)

This cable is used to connect HUB to HUB in a star topology. In addition to this, networking can be done to connect the two computers each other through this cable.

Connection of straight cable

The straight cable can be done through two types:

  1. Normal type
  2. Standard type

Two types of cable connections are shown below.

Cross cable connection

As we know earlier that cross cable can be used between two HUBs or computers. Here cross cable connections are shown below.

Basics of Networking - For Beginners

NOTE: In RJ-45 connector while inserting wire let the computer clip down and count pins 1 to 8 from left to right.

Network operating system

As we know to work with a PC, its hardware must be installed and loading with an operating system is a must. The same way a network which consists of a group of systems, in those also different types of operating systems has to be loaded.

This operating system will allow all computers, cable NIC, switches, routers, HUB, etc to work properly. This operating system network lets the topology, protocol, standard, etc to possible.

This type of operating system is called the network operating system. When networking is implemented in computers then it must also have much more capability than that of normal computers. That capability comes from the operating system and software only.

It would be better with the operating system of high capability. Hence, the need for different software will become less. And if needed also, only to associate but not for capability. With all the above things client and server jobs are exhibited perfectly.

In fact, for client computers, normal windows 98 or 95 operating systems can be used. But whereas in server a special type of operating system is to be used.

For example, if we consider windows 2000 operating system, this will work with the help of protocol stacks and device drivers. In window 98 second edition like operating system, some special networking features, like internet connection sharing is also possible.

The history of network operating system is about more than 30 years. In the earlier stages windows also could not support networking. At that time naval Netware is the first operating system which gave networking service to the personal computer.

For personal computer through windows, the operating system is Windows 95 and windows for the workgroup. Now a day’s nobody is ready to acquire these operating systems.

Because the internet has become a necessity, these days. The operating systems using these days are naval Netware etc soft LAN testing, Microsoft LAN manager, etc. now a day’s personal computer network operating the software is connected with the operating system but earlier it was not like that.

Earlier control the speed within the network. For example Microsoft LAN manager, this was known as the network operating system in earlier days, but in reality, it will provide network capability to MS-DOS Unix or OAS/2 like operating systems.

But it was not like that in the new network systems. In windows anti server, windows workstation, Windows 95, etc operating system, both stand-alone and network operating systems are connected with each other.

We all know the need for operating systems. An operating system controls our hardware resource and also completes the required work with commitment.

The importance of the operating system is to control the memory, CPU time, disk space and peripheral devices. Hence, to work on the network and to control the speed of it some capabilities are to be attained because it is very important and a hard task, which has to be done by the operating system. That time we need to use an operating system which is expert in multitasking.

The multitasking operating system will make the computer eligible to perform many tasks at a time with perfection. Here the time-slicing order is implemented. Whenever a computer does many tasks in a time of single task that is known as multitasking.

Multitasking sets the respective time to all the tasks in the process. The computer will do these tasks into two types. They are primitive and non-primitive operating systems.

Primitive operating system plays a vital role between application and processor; allows the processor to work for another process if necessary. Whereas in a non-primitive operating system, once the application is sent to the processor, it will wait until the present is completed.

Hence, primitive multitasking is very much needed for us. Because it can remove the CPU resource from local process to the current task and can use for network process when needed.

The tasks that are completed through the operating system depend on their own capability. The main tasks of it are network file handling, application, and peripheral sharing, etc.

The OSI model’s top five layers are the base for a network operating system also performs differently from the normal operating system. Windows NT and other operating systems vary mainly by the in-built capability of networking.

Network operating system provides a facility to connect all the work stations to work at a time in a network, also the eligibility to access peripheral network. Since it is working as the network, data is also secured. Network operating systems are of two types.

In peer to peer network operating system, makes the user eligible to share files and resources like printer or drives, etc of his computer within the network.

Also, helps to access files and resources from other computers. Local file management service will not be present in this network. All the peer to peer network computers are the same and can access the available resources of any computer in the same way. This network is done for a small size network.

For example, apple share or windows far workgroup, a successful program and works for the peer to peer network operating systems.

While using peer to peer network, there is no need of a particular server, and this is the main advantage. In this network, money is also saved. Also, configuring a system with its setup which is already installed will save time and also money.

But there is no local organization to secure data and to search for data wastage of time will occur. It has the least secure state because security depends only on that particular computer and not based on the client-server security conditions.

When compared with peer to peer network, client-server network operating system is more secure. In the client-server network, organizes for file accessing, also with good security. File server which is used to access the files is the main part, which will provide both resource and protection throughout the network.

The special computer or client in the network uses the available resource of the file server. There is an advantage in this operating system, that from many of the users when one particular file is asked at t time, it can send the file to all the required computers. Naval Netware and windows 2000 are examples for client-server network operating system.

We can get the best result through this client-server network. The protection of data in this network totally depends on the server and can be controlled through an administrator. Any part of it can be controlled and changed if necessary.

In a client-server network, modification done at one place will effect in other locations also. It is very easy to install new technology.

Also, it can be accessed through any platform with remote locations. Because of the above-mentioned features, it might have a requirement for more resources. That is why the cost of the server configuration and also for the setup, is somewhat expensive.

Since the entire network operations are dependent on this a person with professional experience of this has to be employed, because for any instance server is stopped the entire network will be affected.

This way we have seen how a network operating system plays a vital role in networking eve versions of it are developing day by day, which bring many facilities for us. It is necessary to opt for an operating system depending on its capacities and our need.

Final Words…

You may find this article longer than usual. But I tried to cover most of the basics of networking in a single article so that you can bookmark it and read later whenever you want.

If you are interested in reading our free CCNA course, then you can go through the following page: